Professor Frank Mastaglia graduated in medicine from the University of Western Australia in 1964.
He then went on to train at the Institute of Neurology in London and at the Regional Neurological Centre in Newcastle-upon-Tyne in the U.K. and the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, USA.
From 1977-1980, he held the Chair of Experimental Neurology at the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. On his return to Perth, Professor Mastaglia was appointed Professor of Neurology and became Head of Neurology at the Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital and Head of the UWA Department of Medicine. He joined the Australian Neuromuscular Research Institute, now the Perron Institute for Neurological and Translational Science, in 1990, starting the first specialty clinics for Inflammatory Muscle Diseases and Neuromuscular Disorders. These are now led by Clinical A/Professor Rick Stell and Professor Merrilee Needham.

Professor Mastaglia previously held the role of Director of Clinical Services and Deputy Director of the Institute for Immunology and Infectious Diseases (IIID) at Murdoch University, overseeing the establishment of the IIID Academic Medical Centre, and is actively engaged in developing mutually beneficial ties between Murdoch University and WA Health.

From 2014-2016 Professor Mastaglia took a break from the Perron Institute after 40 years of service, which included many roles such as Medical Director and Director.

In 2017, Professor Mastaglia returned to the Institute in a senior advisory role.